- Professor, University of Notre Dame
- Associate Professor, University of Notre Dame
- Assistant Professor, University of Notre Dame
- Postdoctoral Fellow, California Institute of Technology
- Ph.D. in Chemistry, University of Washington
- B.S. in Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Reinhold Niebuhr Award
- Eminent Scientist Lecturer, American Chemical Society
- Partners for Progress Prosperity (P3) Award, ACS Joint Great Lakes/Central Region
- Joyce Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching
- Kaneb Faculty Fellow
- Reilly Fellow
- NSF Career Award
- NSF Postdoctoral Fellowship
Paper Analytical Devices
In the early 2000's, researchers discovered that nearly half of the antimalarial medications in some developing countries were fake. These products caused over 120,000 deaths per year. IR, NMR, and HPLC can easily measure the quality of essential medicines, so why are bad quality products killing people in the developing world? The problem is that these technologies are designed for countries with abundant resources. But expensive instruments, trained operators, and high purity supplies are just unavailable in many places in the world. The development of new technologies that are scalable and implementable in low resource settings is a compelling research problem that can impact people's lives all over the world.
My lab is designing paper analytical devices (PADs) to solve a host of analytical problems in low resource settings. Paper is printed with hydrophobic ink to create millifluidic structures such as solution channels, reagent storage areas, and mixing zones. This enables us to automate operations that would normally be carried out with glassware in a lab setting. Many reactions and assay methods used before the age of spectroscopy can be adapted to the paper platform and done in a field setting rather than a laboratory. Current work focuses on synthetic biology for creating biosensors to embed in the paper and on techniques for trace (ppm, ppb) analysis in paper-based systems.
Paper test cards made in our group have been trialed in Britain, the US, Israel, Tanzania, the Philippines, India, South Africa, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Liberia, and Ghana, and by non-governmental organizations such as Médecins Sans Frontières, SIDAI, and MITI Health. Design and prototyping is an integral part of the projects, and researchers in my group travel for field tests in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, or Nepal.
- Bliese, S. L., O'Donnell, D., Weaver, A. A., Lieberman, M. "Paper Millifluidics Lab: Using a Library of Color Tests to Find Adulterated Antibiotics" 2020 Journal of Chemical Education, 97 (3), pp. 786-792. DOI:10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00433.
- Eberle, M. S., Ashenef, A., Gerba, H., Loehrer, P. J., Lieberman, M. "Substandard cisplatin found while screening the quality of anticancer drugs from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia" 2020 Journal of Global Oncology, 6 pp. 407-413. DOI:10.1200/JGO.19.00365.
- Lockwood, T. -. E., Leong, T. X., Bliese, S. L., Helmke, A., Richard, A., Merga, G., Rorabeck, J., Lieberman, M. "idPAD: Paper Analytical Device for Presumptive Identification of Illicit Drugs" 2020 Journal of Forensic Sciences, 65 (4), pp. 1289-1297. DOI:10.1111/1556-4029.14318.
- Miller, R. A., Brown, G., Barron, E., Luther, J. L., Lieberman, M., Goodson, H. V. "Development of a paper-immobilized yeast biosensor for the detection of physiological concentrations of doxycycline in technology-limited settings" 2020 Analytical Methods, 12 (16), pp. 2123-2132. DOI:10.1039/d0ay00001a.
- Zinna, J., Lockwood, T. -. E., Lieberman, M. "Enzyme-based paper test for detection of lactose in illicit drugs" 2020 Analytical Methods, 12 (8), pp. 1077-1084. DOI:10.1039/c9ay02459j.
- Bliese, S. L., Maina, M., Were, P., Lieberman, M. "Detection of degraded, adulterated, and falsified ceftriaxone using paper analytical devices" 2019 Analytical Methods, 11 (37), pp. 4727-4732. DOI:10.1039/c9ay01489f.