S. Alex Kandel

S. Alex Kandel

Surface Chemistry at the Molecular Scale


Associate Professor, University of Notre Dame
Assistant Professor, University of Notre Dame
Postdoctoral Fellow, Pennsylvania State University
Ph.D. in Chemistry, Stanford University
B.S. in Chemistry, Yale University

Selected Awards

Joyce Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching
CAREER Award, National Science Foundation
Union Carbide Student Innovation Recognition Program
American Chemical Society Nobel Laureate Signature Award in Graduate Education

Research Interests

Research in the Kandel group centers around Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). STM allows for imaging with sub-Ångstrom resolution, resulting in direct measurements of the individual atoms and molecules that make up the surfaces of materials. We use molecular-resolution imaging to investigate three broad areas of research: Gas-surface interactions and chemical reactions We produce "movies" from timed sequences of STM images that show the molecular-scale changes that occur on surfaces as they are exposed to high-kinetic-energy neutral or free-radical gas atoms. Such reactions are particularly important for surfaces exposed to active environments, such as flames, plasmas, and the upper atmosphere. Formation and structure of molecularly heterogeneous surfaces Surfaces exposed to molecules in vapor or solution can exhibit both order and randomness on the micrometer and nanometer scales. By choosing appropriate systems, we can vary molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions and control molecular placement and ordering on the surface. Characterization of electronically active surface-bound molecules An STM tip and a conducting surface can be used as electrodes for probing the electronic properties of individual molecules. We work with organometallic molecules with multiple metal centers, and study how local environment affects intramolecular distribution of charge, with possible applications in memory and logic circuits. Images and additional information can be found in the Kandel Group Image Gallery

Recent Papers

  • Brown, R. D.; Quardokus, R. C.; Wasio, N. A.; Petersen, J. P.; Silski, A. M.; Corcelli, S. A.; Kandel, S. A. "Non-intuitive clustering of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone on Au(111)." Beilstein J. Nanotech. 2017, 8, 1801-1807.
  • Petersen, J. P.; Kandel, S. A. "Circuit design considerations for current preamplifiers for scanning tunneling microscopy." J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 2017, 35, 033201.
  • Brown, R. D.; Coman, J. M.; Christie, J. A.; Forrest, R. P.; Lent, C. S.; Corcelli, S. A.; Henderson, K. W.; Kandel, S. A. "Evolution of Metastable Clusters into Ordered Structures for 1,1 '-Ferrocenedicarboxylic Acid on the Au(111) Surface." J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 121, 6191-6198.
  • Christie, J. A.; Forrest, R. P.; Corcelli, S. A.; Wasio, N. A.; Quardokus, R. C.; Brown, R.; Kandel, S. A.; Lu, Y.; Lent, C. S.; Henderson, K. W. "Synthesis of a Neutral Mixed-Valence Diferrocenyl Carborane for Molecular Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Applications." Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 2015, 54, 15448-15451.
  • Wasio, N. A.; Quardokus, R. C.; Brown, R. D.; Forrest, R. P.; Lent, C. S.; Corcelli, S. A.; Christie, J. A.; Henderson, K. W.; Kandel, S. A. "Cyclic Hydrogen Bonding in Indole Carboxylic Acid Clusters." J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119, 21011-21017.
  • Quardokus, R. C.; Wasio, N. A.; Brown, R. D.; Christie, J. A.; Henderson, K. W.; Forrest, R. P.; Lent, C. S.; Corcelli, S. A.; Kandel, S. A. "Hydrogen-bonded clusters of 1,1 '-ferrocenedicarboxylic acid on Au(111) are initially formed in solution." J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 101927.

Contact Information

Primary Research Areas

Research Specialties