- Associate Professor, University of Notre Dame
- Assistant Professor, University of Notre Dame
- Postdoctoral Fellow, Pennsylvania State University
- Ph.D. in Chemistry, Stanford University
- B.S. in Chemistry, Yale University
- CAREER Award, National Science Foundation
- Union Carbide Student Innovation Recognition Program
- American Chemical Society Novel Laureate Signature Award in Graduate Education
Research in the Kandel group centers around Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). STM allows for imaging with sub-Ångstrom resolution, resulting in direct measurements of the individual atoms and molecules that make up the surfaces of materials. We use molecular-resolution imaging to investigate three broad areas of research: Gas-surface interactions and chemical reactions We produce "movies" from timed sequences of STM images that show the molecular-scale changes that occur on surfaces as they are exposed to high-kinetic-energy neutral or free-radical gas atoms. Such reactions are particularly important for surfaces exposed to active environments, such as flames, plasmas, and the upper atmosphere. Formation and structure of molecularly heterogeneous surfaces Surfaces exposed to molecules in vapor or solution can exhibit both order and randomness on the micrometer and nanometer scales. By choosing appropriate systems, we can vary molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions and control molecular placement and ordering on the surface. Characterization of electronically active surface-bound molecules An STM tip and a conducting surface can be used as electrodes for probing the electronic properties of individual molecules. We work with organometallic molecules with multiple metal centers, and study how local environment affects intramolecular distribution of charge, with possible applications in memory and logic circuits. Images and additional information can be found in the Kandel Group Image Gallery
M.M. Jobbins, A.F. Raigoza, and S.A. Kandel, “Adatoms at the sulfur–gold interface in 1-adamantanethiolate monolayers, studied using reaction with hydrogen atoms and scanning tunneling microscopy,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 115, 25437 (2011).
N.A. Kautz and S.A. Kandel, "Alkanethiol/Au(111) self-assembled monolayers contain gold adatoms: scanning tunneling microscopy before and after reaction with atomic hydrogen," Journal of the American Chemical Society 130, 6908 (2008).
N.A. Kautz and S.A. Kandel, "Reactivity of self-assembled monolayers: Local surface environment determines monolayer erosion rates," Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, 4725 (2012).
Y. Lu, R. Quardokus, C.S. Lent, F. Justaud, C. Lapinte, and S.A. Kandel, "Charge localization in isolated mixed-valence complexes: An STM and theoretical study," Journal of the American Chemical Society 132 ,13519 (2010).
A.F. Raigoza, G. Kolettis, T.E.S. Brandt, G. Caponigri-Guerra, C. Agostino, and S.A. Kandel, “Coadsorption of octanethiol and dialkyldithiocarbamate on Au(111),” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 116, 1930 (2012).
R. Quardokus, Y. Lu, N.A. Wasio, C.S. Lent, F. Justaud, C. Lapinte, and S.A. Kandel, "Through-bond versus through-space coupling in mixed-valence molecules: Observation of electron localization at the single-molecule scale," Journal of the American Chemical Society 134, 1710 (2012).